Short Communication - European Journal of Zoological Research ( 2021) Volume 9, Issue 1
Received: 01-Jan-2021 Published: 23-Jul-2021
Organic livestock farming has set itself the objective of developing environmentally friendly production, keeping animals in excellent condition, achieving high animal welfare standards, and generating high-quality products, all based on production principles. Organic livestock farming fulfils the expectations of a growing number of customers who are sceptical of traditional production techniques by pursuing these aims. The article provides an overview of the current state of the art in several areas. The possibilities and constraints of achieving self-directed objectives while adhering to organic farming's basic principles are explored. In terms of product quality, there is minimal evidence that the manufacturing process has a system-related influence on product quality. The benefits of the fundamental criteria, it is determined, are largely connected to environmentally friendly production and animal welfare, but animal health and product quality are impacted more by individual farm management than by the production technique. There is evidence to support the idea that organic livestock production places more demands on farm management qualifications, including a larger chance of failure. As a result, quality assurance systems should be created to ensure that consumers' high expectations are met.
In recent years, traditional cattle husbandry has had remarkable success in increasing per reduction costs. Simultaneously, the cost and labor-intensive concerns of environmentally friendly production, animal health, and welfare have been pushed to the background by industrial intensification. With a rising number of consumers ready to pay premium pricing , farmers may be able to lower their costs. Costs of production are under pressure. As a result, organic agriculture is heavily reliant on customer demand for organically produced products as well as additional benefits such as biodiversity, species preservation, environmental, landscape, groundwater, and animal conservation, all of which are intimately connected to the production process. In response to shifting market principles, this necessitates a consumer-centric strategy. In contrast to traditional livestock production, lines are not used in traditional livestock production. The initial rules were created by a private organisation in 1924 in attempt to offer an alternative to standard industrial development.
The increased use of chemical substances, particularly mineral fertilisers and pesticides, and the decreased style of thinking in regard to the manufacturing process were the primary points of criticism. In contrast to conventional agriculture, the farm is viewed as a living organism, with integrative and holistic considerations prioritised. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements  created and subsequently refined the principles, which have since found application all over the world. Furthermore, the IFOAM’s fundamental criteria served as a foundation for the development of the EEC’s organic agricultural regulation. The EEC-Regulation 1804/1999, complementing regulation no. 2092/91 on organic production, has been enacted and will become law in August 2000 in European countries. The EEC-Regulation establishes criteria for the right to identify food as organic. It will establish a framework for organic livestock production and labelling by defining housing conditions, animal nutrition, and animal breeding, as well as animal care, illness prevention, and veterinary treatment. Production of organic cattle and product labelling. The maximum number of livestock units per hectare is restricted to two cattle units per hectare. A limited amount of traditional feed can be used throughout the changeover phase. In the case of herbivores, the maximum percentage every year is 10%, whereas for other species it is 20%. Synthetic amino acids and growth stimulants are prohibited .
Animal welfare minimum criteria are largely concerned with locomotion area, floor qualities, and husbandry procedures. For all agricultural animals, dry litter and group penning are recommended. Farm animals are not allowed to be tethered. The indoor space is supplemented by an outdoor space that must account for at least 75% of the total space. Scientists, on the other hand, are skeptical about organic agriculture’s effectiveness in relation to the selfcreated aims. The topic is whether organic cattle farming principles enable significantly better productivity than conventional methods. There are only a few comparison researches on raising cattle available right now, and studies on organic pig and poultry production are scarce. Based on field research, the goal of this study is to provide an overview of the current situation in organic livestock production in terms of ecologically friendly production, animal health, and welfare.
The primary requirements for ecologically friendly production in organic livestock farming are the avoidance of pesticides and mineral nitrogen, the necessity to limit the number of farm animals per area unit, and the constraint to use as little bought-in food as possible. Organic farming, in the absence of these alternatives, must rely on effective nutrient circulation throughout the farm to sustain soil fertility and high output. A systemic and causally connected strategy is used to reduce pollution or energy consumption, whereas traditional tactics are generally centred on technical and management-related approaches . An overview that how climatic factors plays an major role in livestock production and a comparative analysis between the conventional and organic animal raising was given by . His studies made the belief more firmer that the organic animal husbandry is really helpful in enhancing the health of the eco-system. The most prevalent approaches for assessing nutrient losses at the farm level include using entire farm balance sheets. The systemic effect of organic agriculture has a balance-surplus in relation to the product, according to calculations. There is reason to believe that system-related factors, such as increasing animal performance per animal per year, are far more successful at reducing pollution than management-related factors. In conclusion, organic farming’s basic principles provide appropriate instruments for reducing environmental contamination and nutrient losses at the farm level. These appear to be more effective than traditional production measures. However, there is a lot of variation among organic farms in terms of effort and nutrient efficiency.
Organic livestock farming isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution to all livestock-related issues. It is primarily a production method for a niche premium market with stringent quality standards for the manufacturing process and a high level of managerial competence. It is critical for the growth of organic livestock farming to ensure consumer confidence in organic products by meeting self-created demands to a great degree. Organic livestock production is difficult not just for farmers, but also for agricultural research and interdisciplinary collaboration. Animal raisers should have detailed methodologies and indicators for assessing animal welfare on the farm. Farmers should also have a support structure in place to help them enhance the quality of their output. The most important component is that socioeconomic studies on the adoption of organic animal husbandry should be conducted.