Received: 08-May-2022, Manuscript No. aeb-22- 81298 ; Editor assigned: 10-May-2022, Pre QC No. aeb-22- 81298 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jun-2022, QC No. aeb-22- 81298 (Q); Revised: 17-May-2022, Manuscript No. aeb-22- 81298 (R); Published: 25-May-2022 , DOI: 0
In addition to bacteria, fungi, microeukaryotes, and viruses also coexist with bacteria in the mosaic ecosystems of microbes that inhabit human skin. Unique fungal communities, the second most common type, are present in the dry, moist, and oily microenvironments of human skin. Changes in these communities are mostly influenced by changes in skin physiology throughout an individual’s lifetime. Due to the disturbed equilibrium between fungal-bacterial networks on the skin, fungi have also been linked to infections and dermatological problems. The mechanisms of colonization resistance against fungus in animal skin microbiomes have enhanced our understanding of conservation methods, but the mycobiome (fungal microbiome) in human skin is still mostly unknown. Here, we review recent research on the function of fungi in the skin microbiome, highlighting the crucial ecological significance that fungalbacterial interactions at the skin surface play in vertebrate hosts.
The term “skin microbiome” refers to the diverse microbial communities that reside on human skin and are made up of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microeukaryotes. These populations find refuge in skin pores and appendages like hair follicles and sebaceous glands, which are among the greatest direct epithelial interfaces for enabling host-microbe interactions. By directly fending off invasive pathogens and fine-tuning the immune system beginning in infancy, the skin microbiome strengthens the primary barrier function of the skin. The variety of microenvironments found on the body is a distinctive characteristic of the skin. In contrast to the umbilicus (navel) and axilla (armpit), which retain a high moisture content, the forearm is drier and more desiccated, while the forehead is oilier. In turn, these characteristics influence the composition of related microbial communities and present a rare chance to research microbial ecology in the human body. The ability to repeat samples and longitudinal sampling across an individual’s lifetime and the body’s biogeography makes the skin an excellent system.
Even though the skin microbiome has not received as much attention as the gut microbiome, important developments in recent years have shown how crucial skin-associated microbial populations are to dermatological health. The majority of the microbiome is made up of bacteria, although fungi are also widely present on the skin, albeit with less diversity than their bacterial counterparts. Interkingdom interactions are therefore constant within the skin microbiota and constitute a rich source of untapped biology. Dysbiosis brought on by fungal overgrowth is a phenomenon that is now known to play a role in both gut and skin chronic disorders. Fungal infections are among the most challenging diseases to manage and are linked to one of the skin diseases with the highest economic burden. In addition, antifungal medicines are severely limited in the clinic.
Even though bacteria make up a substantial portion of the skin microbiome, fungi play a critical role in the essential processes involved in the growth, upkeep, and repair of skin in vertebrate hosts. Fungal communities are less diverse in the human skin mi-crobiome, but they are always present and undergo physiologic and aging-related changes. It is yet unclear whether bacterial communities contribute to the mycobiome’s structure, especially by restricting the spread of pathogens and encouraging a less varied community as a person ages.
These alterations in the skin fungus community probably play a significant ecological impact. Understanding these changes can help explain how the human host fights the colonization of prospective fungal invaders, a subject that has been extensively researched in the context of animal conservation tactics. Understanding these interactions may help us understand the key players and ecological roles that each member of the skin microbial community plays. This work may result in new medicines and enhance dermatological outcomes about fungi.