The organs functionality and the related material mimicry properties (Kokkinis) are difficult to reproduce. The smart design and reconstruction processes (Avventuroso; Wu) requires the material functionalization and engineering. To overcame these problems, we merged the composite biomaterials (Guarino; Milazzo) properties with the bio-composite manufacturing processes (Foresti). In fact, the composite biomaterial can modulate its properties with nanoparticles and the resulted bio-ink can be used for the fabrication of the fibre, the adhesive interface and the coating matrix of a bio-composite material. For example, with a flexible fibre covered with an adhesive coating (impermeable and unable to improve the cells adherence, avoiding occlusion problems) it is possible to develop a functional vessel (Hajal).
We reconstructed a femoral peripheral artery bifurcation utilising a patient morphology CT, obtaining a full customisable 5D printed object (Gillaspie). The resulted digital model was used to realise, with a custom made RFP bioprinter (Ozbolat), a sodium alginate-based (enriched with green fluorescent NPs) coating balloon gelled with EtOH, dehydrated (nano-laden fibre aerogel) and tested in-vitro. Furthermore, in-vivo tests (Fig. 1) with the bio-composite device demonstrated the uniform gradual release and a very short dissolution time (~ 2/3 minutes).