Hippocampal structural and functional integrity; and its neurogenesis are crucial to memory and associated neurological functions. Caffeine ingestion or exposure is postulated to have significant influence on the hippocampus, especially at puberty which is a critical stage in postnatal neurological development. To this end, this investigation studies the potential influence of caffeine on hippocampal structure, neurochemistry and short term memory in experimental Wistar rats using thirty two (n=32) young male Wistar rats at puberty. They were divided into four groups labeled A-D. Group A served as control and were fed ad libitum. Group B animals received 10 mg/kg body weight of caffeine daily; Group C received 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine; Group received 120 mg/kg body weight caffeine daily. Administration was done using oral cannula. Administration lasted 14 days and animals were tested for short term memory using the Barnes maze. Animals were sacrificed and tissues were processed to observe hippocampal structural integrity suing the H&E technique; Nissl bodies using the Cresyl Fast Violet technique; possible astrocyte reactions using the glial acidic fibrillary protein technique. Neurotransmitters and enzymes were assayed. Caffeine had mild effects on the CA (Cornu Ammonis) of the hippocampal formation. Caffeine influenced neurochemistry and short term memory slightly negatively. Dentate gyrus was unaffected. Results showed that caffeine had effects on the hippocampus at puberty.