In the fight against any disease, epidemiology is crucial. In the fight to understand, contain, and respond to COVID-19, the study of how illnesses spread and why has loomed big. Data on infections and deaths, as well as forecasts from research that model the viruses spread have influenced policy around the world. Many of them are now conventional, such as the isolation of countries, the imposition of quarantines, and the requirement of social separation and mask-wearing. It's been more than a year since reports of a previously unknown coronavirus generating pneumonia like symptoms began to surface.