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Optogenetics Research and the Recent Development in Pain Mechanisms | Abstract
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Abstract

Optogenetics Research and the Recent Development in Pain Mechanisms

Author(s): Ling-Yu Liu

Optogenetics refers to the use of genetically encoded opsins to specifically activate or inhibit of specific types of neuronal activity and circuits with high spatiotemporal precision control over living tissues and animal models by the development and convergence of natural or transformed opsins tools. Due to the highly temporal and spatial resolution of optogenetics with specificity for tissue and cell type, optogenetic technique system combined with imaging/recording system have now illuminated the causal role of defined cell types and projections ranging from the most basic physiological function to disease-related physiology and behaviors. With the drastic development of science and technology over time, here we provide a brief overview of the recent breakthroughs based on the application of optogenetic tools to look insights into neuroscience, especially the mechanisms of pain in recent years. As for optogenetics is widely used in the field of neuroscience, physiology, and pathology, optogenetic strategies have been applied to pain processing and perception at the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) and Central Nervous System (CNS) levels to modulate the vast complexity of excitatory and inhibitory neural networks. The regulation of pain incorporates multiple brain regions underlying complicated cellular and circuitry mechanisms in the CNS. Mutated optogenetic techniques make it possible that consistent and robust genetically restricted expression of opsins in the PNS neurons, and wireless ?¼LEDs enable the restricted delivery of light to the neurons. On the promising future, the optogenetics toolsets will not only more mature but also combine more closely with other techniques including neural recording and imaging tools, as well as neural connectivity and cell phenotyping tools.