Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. There are no effective therapies or prevention strategies that are currently available. Major developments in molecular mechanisms, on the other hand, have been reported. Clinical trials are currently working on many features and principles of Alzheimer's disease, such as amyloid formation and aggregation.
As a result, Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of approximately 40 identified amyloidosis protein misfolding diseases with the abnormal deposition of endogenous proteins as amyloid fibrils as their main pathogenic mechanism. This article's primary goal is to introduce AD and it’s identified key players, to summarise classic and recent publications on the disease's complex molecular mechanisms, and to discuss challenges that must be overcome in order to develop improved therapeutic strategies. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a slowly progressing neurological disease that gets worse over time. Recalling recent experiences is the most prevalent early sign. Due to the fact that the rate of development changes, the life span expectancy after diagnosis is three to nine years.
It is unclear how disruptions in the production and aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide cause the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The amyloid hypothesis has traditionally identified beta-amyloid peptide accumulation as the primary event causing neuron degeneration. Various inflammatory processes and cytokines may also play a role in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Inflammation is a general marker of tissue damage in any disease, and it can be secondary to tissue damage in Alzheimer's disease or an immunological response. Neurons and immunological processes in the brain appear to interact substantially, according to accumulating data. Obesity and systemic inflammation may disrupt immune processes that promote disease progression. Alzheimer's disease has been linked to changes in the distribution of various neurotropic factors as well as the expression of their receptors, such as Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF).
Alzheimer's disease has become the sixth major source of deaths in the United States, but recent estimates suggest it may be in third place, just after heart disease and cancer. Neurodegenerative disorder in which a person's cognitive functioning thinking, remembering, and reasoning and mental abilities have decreased to the point where they interfere with daily lives and activities. The causes of dementia can vary, depending on the type of brain abnormalities, early-onset diseases and vascular dementia are examples of other dementias. which is a combination of two or more types of dementia, is extremely uncommon.
Phases of Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease is of three stages mainly mild Alzheimer's disease, moderate Alzheimer's disease, and severe Alzheimer's disease
Mild Alzheimer's disease: symptoms of the mild stage of Alzheimer's disease includes
• Severe memory loss and other cognitive problems as the disease develop.
• Poor judgment leading to bad decisions.
• Repeating questions.
• Taking longer to do daily tasks.
• Personality and behavioural changes.
Moderate Alzheimer's disease: symptoms of the moderate stage of Alzheimer's disease includes
• Damage to parts of the brain that control language, reasoning,
• Inability to learn new things.
• Increased memory loss and confusion.
• Sensory processing, such as the capability to correctly identify things, develops at this stage.
Severe Alzheimer's disease: Severe Alzheimer's disease shows symptoms like
• Inability to communicate.
• Trouble to detect their relatives and friends.
• They may be unable to learn new skills=
• Perform multistep activities
• Skin infections, Seizures.