Commentary - European Journal of Sports & Exercise Science ( 2023) Volume 11, Issue 1
Received: 01-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. Ejses-22-81109; Editor assigned: 03-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. Ejses-22-81109 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Feb-2023, QC No. Ejses-22-81109; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. Ejses-22-81109 (R); Published: 28-Apr-2023
Numerous studies have shown how exercise can support cognitive function and that its benefits can persist for a long period. A growing body of scientific research suggests that the benefits of exercise continue longer than previously believed, possibly even affecting future generations. In order to create an "epigenetic memory" that can affect long-term brain function and behavior, exercise appears to play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We address recent findings in the epigenetic area that link exercise to changes in cognitive performance in this review paper. These findings include DNA methylation, histone alterations, and MicroRNAs (miRNAs). To effectively use exercise's ability to lessen the burden of neurological and mental conditions, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of how it fosters long-term cognitive impacts. To preserve general body and cognitive health, exercise is regarded as an essential component of our daily routine. Particularly, there is a wealth of research that shows how exercise improves cognitive function over the course of a person's life and a lack of exercise is associated with an increased risk of developing a number of neurological illnesses. According to recent research, exercise has a greater impact on brain function than previously believed. In fact, the brain may be able to retain the positive benefits of exercise for a long period of time. In the past ten years, significant research has been made about the molecular mechanisms by which physical activity and other environmental stresses alter the programed of genes with functional repercussions. The term "epigenetics" refers to changes in chromatin that modulate gene transcription and store these changes as "an epigenetic memory" that affects long-term brain plasticity and function. The ability to resist diseases appears to be conferred on people throughout their lifespan and even to their progeny, according to a growing corpus of research on epigenetic changes brought on by exercise. In actuality, PA can, in a dose dependent manner, assist prevent the onset of hypertension. This finding is incredibly significant given that hypertension is a common issue and the most prevalent risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), one of the leading causes of mortality. Only a small portion of hypertension patient’s exercise despite these clear correlations. Exercise has been shown to improve learning and memory in both humans and animals, and these benefits have been linked to changes in hippocampus size. Exercise has been linked to improved cognitive function in school aged children: Those who engaged in more aerobic activity often outperformed their peers on tests of verbal, perceptual and arithmetic abilities. A recent meta-analysis study found that, in addition to the well-known benefits of long term exercise on the brain, acute exercise can also be used as a tool for situations requiring strong executive control. This study found that, in preadolescent children and older adults, a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory.
It is widely acknowledged that adaptations to a dynamic environment involve long lasting physiological changes that defy genetic mutational explanation.
This idea has motivated researchers to look for alternate explanations for how environmental influences can be preserved in the DNA. Conrad Hal Waddington came up with the word "epigenetics" to describe how genes might interact with their environment to form a phenotype. Today, the term "epigenetics" describes modifications to chromatin that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. These ideas also raised the potential that epigenetic changes can be inherited and serve as a source of personal variation. The investigation of modifications that occur above the genome but do not affect the nucleotide sequence has been the focus of epigenetic research. Covalent changes of histone proteins (acetylation and methylation) or DNA (methylation) and their consequences on changing gene expression are the two most researched epigenetic mechanisms. Typically, these changes in gene expression are linked to the intermediary activity of proteins that function as transcription activators or repressors by binding to regulatory areas of the DNA.