Genetic Differences and Inheritance Patterns in Human Genetics
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Annals of Biological Research

Opinion Article - Annals of Biological Research ( 2022) Volume 13, Issue 7

Genetic Differences and Inheritance Patterns in Human Genetics

Simona Howell*
Department of Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA
*Corresponding Author:
Simona Howell, Department of Molecular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA, Email:

Received: 01-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-84941; Editor assigned: 05-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. ABR-22-84941; Reviewed: 19-Dec-2022, QC No. ABR-22-84941; Revised: 26-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-84941 ; Published: 02-Jan-2023 , DOI: 10.4172/0976-1233.005


The study of inheritance as it occurs in people is called human genetics. Classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics, and genetic counselling are among the related topics that make up human genetics. The majority of human hereditary traits share characteristics that can be attributed to genes. Human genetics research can provide insights into human nature, aid in the understanding of diseases and the creation of efficient treatments, and aid in our understanding of the genetics of human existence. Human trait inheritance is based on Gregor Mendel’s theory of inheritance. Mendel came to the conclusion that distinct units of inheritance known as factors or genes are what control inheritance.

Autosomal dominant inheritance

Autosomal traits are inherited from both parents and are caused by a single gene on an autosome. This is why they are referred to as “dominant” qualities. Unless it has developed as a result of an improbable new mutation, this frequently implies that one of the parents must also possess the same characteristic. Huntington’s disease and achondroplasia are two examples of autosomal dominant characteristics and illnesses.

Autosomal recessive inheritance

One type of inheritance pattern for a trait, illness or problem that is passed down through families is autosomal recessive characteristics. Two copies of the trait or condition must be present in order for a recessive trait or disease to manifest. The gene or characteristic will be found on a non-sex chromosome. Because a trait requires two copies to manifest, many people may unintentionally carry a disease [1-3]. A recessive illness or characteristic may go unnoticed for a number of generations before manifesting as the phenotypic, according to evolutionary theory. Albinism and cystic fibrosis are two instances of autosomal recessive diseases.

X-linked and Y-linked inheritance

The sex X chromosome contains X-linked genes. Like autosomal genes, X-linked genes can be dominant or recessive. Rarely do girls suffer from recessive X-linked illnesses, which typically only afflict men. This is true because all X-linked genes and the X chromosome, which males inherit from their mother, are passed down through the maternal line. No X-linked features will be passed from father to son because fathers only pass on their Y chromosome to their kids [4]. Men only have one X chromosome, hence any recessive X linked characteristic inherited from the mother will manifest. As a result, men cannot be carriers for recessive X linked traits.

When females are homozygous for an X-linked illness, they show symptoms, and when they are heterozygous, they become carriers. The phenotype of an X-linked dominant inheritance will be identical to that of a homozygote and heterozygote. It can be distinguished from autosomal features because, like X-linked inheritance, there won’t be any male-to-male inheritance [5]. Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is brought on by a mutation in the ribosomal protein gene, is an illustration of an X-linked condition. This mutation causes short height, mental impairment, and skeletal and craniofacial deformities.

The female X chromosomes go through a process called X inactivation. One of the two X chromosomes in females can become almost entirely inactive, which is known as X inactivation. This mechanism is crucial because without this process, a woman produes twice as many normal X chromosome proteins.. During the embryonic period, the X inactivation mechanism will take place [6]. X-inactivation will inactivate all X chromosomes until there is just one X chromosome active in patients with illnesses like trisomy X, when the genotype has three X chromosomes. In order to reduce the number of fully active X chromosomes to one in Klinefelter syndrome males with an additional X chromosome, X inactivation is also performed.

When a gene, characteristic, or condition is passed down through the Y chromosome, it is known as Y-linked inheritance. Only males have Y chromosomes, hence only fathers may pass on Y-linked features to their sons. The Y chromosomes testis determining factor, which controls whether a person is male or female, controls this. There are no other Y-chromosome-linked traits discovered besides the maleness that is inherited.