Opinion - Der Pharmacia Lettre ( 2023) Volume 15, Issue 2
Received: 01-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-91936; Editor assigned: 06-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. DPL-23-91936(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Feb-2023, QC No. DPL-23-91936; Revised: 27-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-91936(R); Published: 06-Mar-2023 , DOI: 10.37532/dpl.2023.15.09
The goal of respiratory medications is to help breathe more easily while treating various breathing issues like wheeze and respiratory shortness. They include breathing medication in the form of a mist using nebulizer machines. For the treatment of conditions such cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), doctors may suggest a variety of medications. They consist of the following:
A short-acting bronchodilator is the term for the pharmacological class albuterol. It calms down the smooth muscles in airways, bringing relief from an asthma attack. A metered dose inhaler is typically used to administer it (ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, others). It can, however, also be ingested as a tablet or liquid, inhaled using a tool called a nebulizer. Muscle aches, headaches, throat discomfort, and shakiness are a few of the adverse effects of albuterol. Side effects that are more severe but less frequent include a fast heartbeat (tachycardia), heart palpitations, or feelings of fluttering (palpitations).
Neonatals' airways are most constricted near the subglottis. When a newborn is extubated, the presence of a foreign body, which happens with extended intubation, causes edoema in the subglottic area, which may cause the airway to become even more constricted. Both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are stimulated by racemic epinephrine. Blood flow at the capillary level is significantly decreased as a result of its effect on vascular smooth muscle, which causes vasoconstriction. Upper respiratory mucosa contracts as a result, and edoema is lessened. The effectiveness of racemic epinephrine for the prevention of postextubation stridor has not been established, however it is a helpful medication for individuals who already have the condition. In addition to standard treatment for pulmonary bleeding, racemic epinephrine may be used. One should be mindful of the negative effects of utilising racemic epinephrine, which include Ribavirin is used with an interferon drug, such as peginterferon alpha-2b [PEG-Intron] or peginterferon alfa-2a [Pegasys], to treat hepatitis C in patients who have never received an interferon treatment. The antiviral drug ribavirin belongs to the nucleoside analogues class of drugs. It functions by preventing the spread of the hepatitis C virus within the body. It is unknown whether hepatitis C infection can be cured, whether liver damage brought on by hepatitis C can be avoided, or whether hepatitis C can be stopped from spreading to other people through treatment using ribavirin and another drug.
Pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine, is used to treat both East and West African trypanosomiasis' hemolymphatic form (stage 1 illness). It is also used to treat leishmaniasis and is a second-line medication for the prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Pentamidine also works against Balamuthia mandrillaris and many Acanthamoeba species.
Corticosteroids (medications that resemble cortisone) are used to treat inflamed body regions. They decrease allergic reactions' itching, swelling, and other side effects. They are frequently used in the treatment of a variety of illnesses, including severe allergies or skin conditions, asthma, or arthritis. However, the doctor may decide to use corticosteroids for additional problems. Some cortisone-like hormones are created by body naturally and are required to sustain healthy health. The doctor may have prescribed this medication to help make up the deficit if the body does not create enough of it. Corticosteroids are extremely potent drugs. They have side effects that might be very significant in addition to their beneficial advantages in addressing the medical issue.
Breathing is made easier by a class of drugs called bronchodilators. They accomplish this by loosening the lungs' muscles and opening up the airways (bronchi). They're frequently used to treat chronic illnesses that may cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways. This comprises the diseases like asthma, a common lung disease brought on by airway inflammation and a lung condition called Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that prevents airflow.
Good housing and nutrition, avoiding cigarette smoke exposure (both before and after birth), actively promoting physical activity in an environment with clean air, preventing obesity, and receiving appropriate health care, including immunisation programmes, are all variables that are particularly advantageous. Asthma and allergies have increased and respiratory viral diseases that can be fatal have decreased in developed nations. There are still many unknown and occasionally debatable environmental elements that may affect children's respiratory health. More study is required because this is particularly true with regard to allergies and asthma.