Improved Hospital Care for Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease
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Der Pharmacia Lettre

Opinion - Der Pharmacia Lettre ( 2023) Volume 15, Issue 1

Improved Hospital Care for Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

Johnny Sofie*
Department of Pharmacy, University of Yale, New Haven, United States
*Corresponding Author:
Johnny Sofie, Department of Pharmacy, University of Yale, New Haven, United States, Email:

Received: 09-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-89137; Editor assigned: 13-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. DPL-23-89137(PQ); Reviewed: 27-Feb-2023, QC No. DPL-23-89137; Revised: 06-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-89137(R); Published: 13-Mar-2023 , DOI: 10.37532/dpl.2023.15.03


The contagious viral illness Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) primarily affects newborns and young children. The coxsackievirus, which is most frequently responsible, belongs to the Enterovirus genus. The viruses that cause HFMD are communicated by close contact, coughing-related airborne transmission, and contact with an infected person's faeces. This viral infection is widespread and is not local to any one region. Fever, sore throat, feeling rundown, painful, blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums, and inside of the cheeks, a rash on the palms and soles, and occasionally buttock swelling are the prominent symptoms. Based on The Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), molecular testing is carried out. A common viral ailment, Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) typically affects infants and young children under the age of five, while it can also affect adults. The infection typically affects the hands, feet, mouth, and occasionally, although sporadically, the genitalia and buttocks. In most cases, coxsackievirus A type 16 is what causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, however there are other additional coxsackievirus strains that can also result in illness. The enterovirus has been related to hand, foot, and mouth illness in the western Pacific. The Picornaviridae family, which also comprises non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses, includes the coxsackievirus.

This viral infection is widespread and is not local to any one region. Outbreaks can be noticed in daycares, summer camps, or within families because children (especially those under the age of seven) tend to contract the disease at a higher rate than adults. Typically, these epidemics occur in the summer and early fall. Although hand, foot, and mouth disease affects both sexes equally, earlier epidemiological statistics tend to indicate that males are more frequently infected than females. Some studies suggest that family members and close contacts are also at risk for contracting hand, foot, and mouth disease because the virus is shed in the faeces for several weeks. The coxsackievirus is the most frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease. This coxsackievirus is a member of the nonpolio enterovirus family. Hand, foot, and mouth illness can also be brought on by other enterovirus varieties.

The majority of cases of coxsackievirus infection and hand, foot, and mouth disease are transmitted orally. Person-to-person contact with an infected person's: saliva, blister fluid, faeces, nasal secretions, or throat discharge, as well as respiratory droplets released into the air after a cough or sneeze, all contribute to the transmission of the infection. Usually, the signs and symptoms that are present can be used to make a diagnosis. If the diagnosis is uncertain, a stool sample or throat swab may be collected in order to culture the virus. Between three and six days pass during the typical incubation period (the interval between infection and the development of symptoms). There is no need to do diagnostic tests to diagnose hand, foot, and mouth disease; however, molecular testing can be used to determine the enterovirus serotype. Based on the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), molecular testing is carried out. The 5'-untranslated region of the viral RNA is amplified in order to identify the serotype. In order to stop an outbreak of HFMD among children, early identification is crucial. Hand, foot, and mouth illness has no specific treatment. Hand, foot, and mouth disease symptoms typically go away in 7 to 10 days. The discomfort caused by mouth sores may be reduced using a topical oral anaesthetic. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, among others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, among others), over-the-counter painkillers other than aspirin, may help ease overall discomfort. A week is all that it takes for HFMD to pass.

Generally speaking, no specific therapy is necessary. The two key protective behaviours are hand washing and sanitizing the play area surfaces. Washing hands frequently for at least 20 seconds with soap and water, using a hand sanitizer with an alcohol basis if soap and water are not accessible are advised. Toys and doorknobs are among the shared, regularly touched surfaces that should be cleaned and disinfected. Avoiding using unwashed hands to touch the areas of mouth, nose, or eyes and always washing hands, especially before and after attending to someone who is ill as well as after changing diapers, using the restroom, blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing, all these hygienic habits can help avoid viral infections.