Received: 02-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-65961; Editor assigned: 06-Apr-2022, Pre QC No. ABR-22-65961; Reviewed: 18-Apr-2022, QC No. ABR-22-65961; Revised: 25-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-65961; Published: 02-May-2022 , DOI: 10.4172/0976-1233.004
Plant pathology is the study of plant diseases caused by pathogens and environmental factors. Insects, mites, animals, and other pests that eat plant tissues are not listed. Pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic effect, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystems genetics, and plant disease management are all part of the field of plant pathology. Plant disease control is critical for reliable food production, and it causes considerable problems in agricultural land, water, fuel, and other input consumption. Disease control, on the other hand, is generally effective for most crops Diseaseresistant plants are used, as well as plant management practises include crop rotation, pathogen-free seed, optimum planting date and plant density, field moisture control, and pesticide treatment. Continued advancements in the study of plant pathology are essential to improve disease control, keep up with the constant evolution and movement of plant pathogens, and keep up with changes in agricultural techniques. Plant diseases cost farmers a lot of money around the world’s Economic impact. Diseases are predicted to affect plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss from diseases sometimes approaches 20% in less developed settings across wide regions and numerous crop species. Pests and diseases, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, account for around 25% of crop losses. New technologies, such as new sensors that detect plant odours and spectroscopy and biophotonics that can evaluate plant health and metabolism, are needed to detect illnesses and pests early. Hydrolases and a broader family of cell wall dissolving proteins are required for virulence in the majority of pathosystems. CWDPs are pathogen-produced and pectin-targeted in the great majority of cases. Microbes use cell wall polysaccharides as a food source, however they usually use them as a barrier to overcome. Many diseases thrive when the host’s cell walls are broken down, which happens frequently during fruit ripening. The Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes groups contain the majority of phytopathogenic fungus. By producing spores and other structures, the fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually. Spores can travel large distances by air or water, or they can be carried in the soil. Much soil-dwelling fungus can live saprotrophically, meaning they can complete part of their life cycle in the soil. These saprotrophs are facultative. Fungicides and other agricultural methods can be used to control fungal diseases. However, new fungal races that are resistant to certain fungicides frequently emerge. Fungal pathogens that invade living plant tissue and acquire nourishment from living host cells are known as biotrophic pathogens. The majority of plant viruses have single- stranded RNA genomes. Some plant viruses, on the other hand, contain double-stranded RNA or single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes. These genomes may only encode three or four proteins: A replicase, a coat protein, a movement protein for cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata, and occasionally a protein for vector transmission. Plant viruses can have several proteins and use a variety of molecular translation techniques.