Received: 01-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-84942; Editor assigned: 05-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. ABR-22-84942; Reviewed: 21-Dec-2022, QC No. ABR-22-84942; Revised: 28-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22-84942; Published: 04-Jan-2023 , DOI: 10.4172/0976-1233.004
Breeding plants is the process of creating new cultivars. Variety development for various environmental situations, some of which are unfavourable, is a component of plant breeding. Heat stress is one of these factors that severely lower output and quality. Therefore, breeding against heat is a crucial factor in breeding for both the present and the future environments brought on by global climate change (e.g. global warming).
Globally, heat stress brought on by rising temperatures is a major issue. Plants experience various morpho anatomical, physiological and biochemical alterations as a result of occasional or persistent high temperatures. The final result affects plant development, growth, yield and quality reduction. Plant types with higher degrees of thermo tolerance can be bred utilising a variety of conventional or cutting edge genetic methods to reduce the need for breeding for heat stress tolerant. Breeding approaches that involve marker assisted selection are quite beneficial. In order to create new “high yielding-heat tolerant” rice varieties, 41 polymorphic SSR markers have recently been discovered between the heat tolerant rice variety “N22” and the heat susceptible high yielding variety “Uma”. Heat stress is described as an increase in temperature severe enough to permanently harm plant growth and development. Generally, heat shock or heat stress can be caused by a temperature increase of more than typically 10ºC to 15ºC over ambient. The ability of a plant to resist heat, which allows it to grow and deliver an acceptable amount of fruit under high temperatures, is known as heat tolerance.
Crop output is extremely endangered by heat stress on a global scale. Increased levels of greenhouse gases like CO2, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxides are a major cause of global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) forecasts that global temperatures would rise by 0.3ºC per decade reaching 1ºC and 3ºC over pre industrial levels by 2025 and 2100 AD, respectively.
The use of other creatures to control pests like insects and mites is known as biological pest control. Predation, parasitism, herbivory, parasitotic or other natural mechanisms are used although often active human management is also present. The conventional approach to biological control comprises natural predators (such as predators, parasitoids (parasites) and pathogens) of pests that have been produced in laboratories into the environment. An alternative strategy is to realize additional predators either in limited quantities repeatedly or all at once to increase the number of natural foes that already exist in a specific area. The creature released should ideally be able to reproduce survive and provide long term control. Biological control may be an essential component of an integrated pest management approach.
Mechanical pest management is the use of manual methods along with inexpensive tools and gadgets to create a barrier between plants and insects. Since wireworms the larvae of the common click beetle are one of the most destructive pests of freshly ploughed grassland, repeated cultivation exposes them to birds and other predators that feed on them and this approach of weed control is known as tillage and is also effective for pest control.
A trap crop is a plant that is grown with the purpose of luring pests away from surrounding crops. Using insecticides or other means it is easier to control pests gathered on the trap crop. However without the use of insecticides trap cropping has frequently failed to cost effectively lower pest densities on large commercial scales. This failure may be related to the pests propensity to spread back into the primary field.
Pesticides are used on crops using aerial sprayers from modern aeroplanes, crop sprayers mounted on tractors and seed dressings to avoid pests. But utilizing pesticides to control pests effectively is challenging; the right formulation must be chosen, timing is frequently important, the spraying method is important and enough coverage and crop retention are needed. This is essential in countries with plantation crops that are surrounded by pests and their natural foes who coexist in a precarious balance. Crops are typically well adapted to the local environment in less developed countries minimizing the need for pesticides. The better crop varieties that progressive farmers are employing fertilizers to develop are frequently more vulnerable to pest damage yet the indiscriminate use of pesticides may have long-term negative effects.
Due to the difficulty in monitoring pest numbers and gaining access to the canopy, forest pests pose a serious concern. Additionally, forestry pests like bark beetles, which are naturally controlled in their native habitat by their natural enemies, may be transported over great distances in cut timber to locations where they have no natural predators, giving them the opportunity to do significant economic harm. Pest populations in the canopy have been monitored using pheromone traps. These exude substances that are volatile and draw men. Pheromone traps can notify foresters to outbreaks or identify the approach of pests.
Hence, Fumigation is the process of treating a structure to kill pests like wood-boring beetles by airtightening it or enclosing it in a tent and fogging it with liquid insecticide for a prolonged period of time usually between 24 hours and 72 hours.