Editorial - Der Pharmacia Lettre ( 2021) Volume 13, Issue 12
The autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the joints. It usually causes warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness frequently worsen after rest. The wrist and hands are the most commonly involved joints, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body. Tenderness and pain in specific areas of your body, a noticeable increase in fatigue (it takes energy for the body to deal with inflammation), weakness in specific areas of your body that weren't there before, and a general feeling of being unwell are some of the early stage symptoms.
Rheumatoid arthritis's exact cause is unknown. Although genetic factors such as HLA-DR1B1, TRAF1, PSORS1C1, and microRNA 146a have been linked to difficult-to-treat rheumatoid arthritis, other gene polymorphisms appear to be linked to response to biologic modifying antirheumatic drugs. The next one is the FOXO3A gene region, which has been linked to the worst disorder. In RA patients, the minor allele of FOXO3A causes a different response of monocytes. FOXO3A can cause an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF. STAT4, PTPN2, PSORS1C1, and TRAF3IP2 gene polymorphisms have been linked to response to TNF inhibitors.
In the environmental factor diet may increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. For example, a high-salt diet may play a significant role in the development of autoimmune disease. To assess the effect of a high sodium diet in animal models (collagen induces arthritis mice). Joint inflammation was more severe in the high salt fed mice model than in the normal salt fed animals. Furthermore, increased Th-17 cell differentiation and T-cells expressing ROR-t were observed in the high salt fed group. As a result, a lower salt diet was associated with better RA outcomes.
Rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed based on a number of factors, including morning stiffness that lasts at least one hour and has been present for at least six weeks. Three or more joints swollen for at least six weeks, swelling in the wrist, hand, or finger joint that has survived at least six weeks, swelling on both sides of the body of the same joints, hand x-ray changes that are characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis skin nodules (lumps) caused by rheumatoid arthritis A positive blood test for rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide or protein antibodies.
Phases of Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is of three stages mainly mild Rheumatoid arthritis, moderate Rheumatoid arthritis, and severe Rheumatoid arthritis.
Mild rheumatoid arthritis: This is the term used to describe the early stages of Rheumatoid arthritis. A large number of people suffer from joint discomfort, rigidity and oedema. The inside of the joint gets inflamed in the initial stage, joint tissue swells. The synovial, the joint lining is inflamed but the bones are unaffected.
Moderate rheumatoid arthritis: At this stage, the synovial inflammation damages the joint cartilage. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that protects the ends of bones at joints. If a person's cartilage is injured, he or she may experience pain and loss of flexibility.
Severe rheumatoid arthritis: When Rheumatoid arthritis reaches stage 3, it is considered severe. At this point, the cartilage has been damaged as well as the bones themselves. Because the cushion between the bones has worn away they will rub against each other.