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The Cellular Composition of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Trachea
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Der Pharmacia Lettre

Short Communication - Der Pharmacia Lettre ( 2023) Volume 15, Issue 4

The Cellular Composition of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Trachea and Bronchi

Daniel Smith*
 
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
 
*Corresponding Author:
Daniel Smith, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA, Email: danielsmith@gmail.com

Received: 30-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-98879; Editor assigned: 03-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. DPL-23-98879(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Apr-2023, QC No. DPL-23-98879; Revised: 24-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-98879(R); Published: 01-May-2023 , DOI: 10.37532/dpl.2023.15.19 , Citations: Smith D. 2023. The Cellular Composition of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Trachea and Bronchi. Der Pharma Lett.15:19-21. ,
Copyright: 2023 Smith D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Description

The trachea and bronchi are essential components of the respiratory system that play a crucial role in maintaining the exchange of gases between the lungs and the atmosphere. The epithelial cells that line the trachea and bronchi are responsible for the secretion of mucus, which helps trap foreign particles, and the movement of cilia, which helps move the mucus towards the pharynx for disposal. This study provides an overview of the different types of epithelial cells found in the trachea and bronchi, their functions, and their role in respiratory diseases.

Types of epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi

There are several types of epithelial cells that make up the lining of the trachea and bronchi. These include

Ciliated cells: These cells are the most abundant in the trachea and bronchi and are characterized by the presence of cilia on their apical surface. The cilia beat in a coordinated fashion, creating a wave-like motion that moves the mucus layer towards the pharynx. Ciliated cells are also involved in the secretion of mucus, which is important for trapping and removing foreign particles from the airways.

Goblet cells: These cells are responsible for the production and secretion of mucus. The mucus layer created by goblet cells helps to trap foreign particles and protect the airways from infection and irritation.

Basal cells: These cells are located at the base of the epithelial layer and serve as stem cells for the other types of epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi. Basal cells can differentiate into ciliated cells, goblet cells, and other specialized cells as needed.

Club cells: These cells are found in the bronchioles, which are smaller airways that branch off from the bronchi. Club cells secrete a protein called Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) that plays a role in protecting the airways from injury and inflammation [1-4].

Functions of Epithelial Cells in the Trachea and Bronchi

The epithelial cells that line the trachea and bronchi play several important roles in maintaining the health of the respiratory system. These include

Secretion of mucus: The goblet cells in the trachea and bronchi are responsible for the production and secretion of mucus. The mucus layer created by goblet cells helps to trap foreign particles and protect the airways from infection and irritation.

Movement of mucus: The ciliated cells in the trachea and bronchi are responsible for the coordinated movement of the mucus layer towards the pharynx. The cilia beat in a wave-like motion, creating a current that moves the mucus layer along the airways.

Protection from infection: The mucus layer created by goblet cells and the movement of cilia help to remove foreign particles and pathogens from the airways. Additionally, the Club cells in the bronchioles secrete CCSP, which plays a role in protecting the airways from injury and inflammation.

Repair and regeneration: The basal cells in the trachea and bronchi serve as stem cells for the other types of epithelial cells in the airways. Basal cells can differentiate into ciliated cells, goblet cells, and other specialized cells as needed to repair and regenerate the epithelial layer [5-7].

Role of Epithelial Cells in Respiratory Diseases

The epithelial cells that line the trachea and bronchi can be affected by a variety of respiratory diseases. Some of the most common respiratory diseases that affect the trachea and bronchi include

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): COPD is a progressive lung disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The disease is characterized by chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which are both caused by damage to the airways and alveoli of the lungs. In COPD, the epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi are often damaged by chronic exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and occupational dust and chemicals. This damage can lead to inflammation, mucus production, and impaired ciliary function, all of which contribute to the symptoms of COPD, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Asthma: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects the airways and causes episodes of wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Like COPD, asthma is characterized by inflammation and mucus production in the airways, which can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, exercise, and respiratory infections. The epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi are an important source of inflammatory mediators in asthma, including cytokines, chemokines, and leukotrienes. These molecules contribute to airway inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, and mucus production, all of which can lead to the symptoms of asthma.

Bronchitis: Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which are the larger airways that lead from the trachea to the lungs. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection and is characterized by coughing, wheezing, and chest congestion. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a type of COPD and is characterized by persistent cough, mucus production, and shortness of breath. In both types of bronchitis, the epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi are inflamed and produce excess mucus, which can obstruct the airways and impair lung function.

Cystic fibrosis (CF): CF is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. The disease is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a protein that regulates the transport of chloride ions across cell membranes. In the respiratory system, CF results in the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and impairs lung function. The epithelial cells in the trachea and bronchi are responsible for producing the mucus in CF, and the disease is characterized by impaired ciliary function and recurrent respiratory infections [8-10].

In conclusion, the epithelial cells that line the trachea and bronchi play a crucial role in maintaining the health of the respiratory system. These cells are responsible for the secretion of mucus, the movement of cilia, and the protection of the airways from foreign particles and pathogens. However, these cells can be damaged by a variety of respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. Understanding the function of these cells and their role in respiratory diseases is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for patients with respiratory conditions.

References

Citation: Smith D. 2023. The Cellular Composition of the Upper Respiratory Tract: Trachea and Bronchi. Der Pharma Lett.15:19-21.

Copyright: 2023 Smith D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.