Received: 28-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22- 79960; Editor assigned: 03-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. ABR-22- 79960(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Oct-2022, QC No. ABR-22- 79960; Revised: 24-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. ABR-22- 79960(R); Published: 31-Oct-2022 , DOI: 10.4172/0976-1233.004
The formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system, is referred to as thrombosis. When a blood vessel is injured, the body forms a blood clot using platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to prevent blood loss. Even if no blood vessels are damaged, blood clots can form in the body under certain conditions.
An embolus is a clot or a piece of a clot that breaks free and begins to travel around the body. Thrombosis can occur in either the veins or the arteries (arterial thrombosis). Venous thrombosis also known as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), causes a blood clot in the affected area of the body, whereas arterial thrombosis (and, in rare cases, severe venous thrombosis) disrupts the blood supply and damages the tissue supplied by that artery (ischemia and necrosis). An embolus is a piece of an arterial or venous thrombus that breaks off and travels through the circulation to lodge somewhere else as an embolism. A thromboembolism is a specific type of embolism. When a venous thromboembolism lodges in the lung as a pulmonary embolism, complications can occur. An arterial embolus may spread further down the affected blood vessel, where it can lodge as an embolism. The type of blood vessel affected (arterial or venous thrombosis) and the precise location of the blood vessel or the organ supplied by it are used to define thrombosis.
Venous thrombosis is a thrombus-induced vein blockage (blood clot). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a type of venous thrombosis in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins. If a thrombus fragments and travels to the lungs, it becomes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE), a blood clot in the lungs. The term venous thromboembolism encompasses the conditions of DVT alone, DVT with PE, and PE only. The formation of a blood clot within a deep vein is known as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). It primarily affects leg veins, particularly the femoral vein. The rate of blood flow, the thickness of the blood, and the qualities of the vessel wall all play a role in the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. DVT symptoms include swelling, pain, and redness in the affected area.
Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) is a rare type of stroke caused by thrombus blockage of the dural venous sinuses. Headache, abnormal vision, and any of the symptoms of stroke, such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body, may occur. A CT or MRI scan is usually used to make the diagnosis. The vast majority of those affected recover completely. The death rate is 4.3%. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a subtype of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in which thrombosis of the cavernous sinus of the basal skull Dura occurs as a result of retrograde infection and endothelial damage caused around the area from the corners of the mouth to the bridge of the nose. The facial veins in this region anastomose with the orbit’s superior and inferior ophthalmic veins, which drain directly posteriorly into the cavernous sinus via the superior orbital fissure. Infections of the face, such as nasal or upper lip pustules, may thus spread directly into the cavernous sinus, causing stroke-like symptoms such as double vision and squinting, as well as infection spread to cause meningitis.
The formation of a thrombus within an artery is known as arterial thrombosis. In most cases, arterial thrombosis occurs as a result of the rupture of an atheroma (a fat-rich deposit in the blood vessel wall), and is thus known as atherothrombosis. When clots migrate downstream, they cause arterial embolism, which can affect any organ. Alternatively, arterial occlusion occurs as a result of blood clot embolism from the heart (“cardiogenic” emboli). The most common cause is atrial fibrillation, which causes blood stasis in the atria and facilitates thrombus formation, but blood clots can form inside the heart for a variety of reasons, including infective endocarditis. Thrombosis prevention begins with assessing the likelihood of its occurrence. Some people are more likely to develop thrombosis, which can progress to thromboembolism. Some of these risk factors have an inflammatory component. The term “Virchow’s triad” has been proposed to describe the three factors required for the formation of thrombosis: blood stasis, vessel wall injury, and altered blood coagulation. Some risk factors increase the risk of arterial thrombosis while others increase the risk of venous thrombosis. Newborn babies are also at risk of thromboembolism due to the special properties of the haemostatic system leading to symptomatic thrombosis.