Editorial - Der Pharmacia Lettre ( 2021) Volume 13, Issue 10
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Bacteria (MTB). Tuberculosis symptoms can appear rapidly and vary. The most common symptoms of tuberculosis are a persistent cough that lasts at least three weeks, chest pain, coughing up blood or phlegm from the lungs, and breathlessness. People with latent tuberculosis have no symptoms and do not feel anxious. Mycobacterium tuberculosis does not always cause tuberculosis infections. They are instead caused by organisms known as atypical Mycobacterium. Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium fortiutum are among them.
Spinal pain is one of the complications of tuberculosis. Back pain and stiffness are common tuberculosis complications. Joint pain and Tuberculosis arthritis (arthritis caused by tuberculosis) typically affects the hips and knees. Inflammation of the membranes that cover brain (meningitis). This can result in a long-lasting or intermittent headache that lasts for weeks, as well as mental changes. Liver or kidney problems aid in the removal of waste and impurities from your bloodstream. Tuberculosis in these organs has the potential to impair their functions.
Heart problems are rare cases, tuberculosis can infect the tissues surrounding heart, causing inflammation and fluid accumulations that can impair heart's ability to pump effectively. This condition, known as cardiac tamponade, is life threatening. Tuberculosis infections can be divided into two categories. They are active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis.
In active tuberculosis the person who carries the bacteria has active symptoms and can spread the infection to others. When someone has latent tuberculosis, they carry the bacterium but don't show any symptoms. This is due to the fact that immunity fights the illness and can suppress it to some level. Individuals with latent tuberculosis are unable to spread the disease to others. However, the bacteria might reactivate at any time during their lifespan, converting the infection into active tuberculosis. Another method to categorize tuberculosis is by the organs that are impacted. When bacteria infect the lungs, for example, it causes pulmonary tuberculosis. If the bacterium infects the bladder, bladder tuberculosis can develop. Similarly, it can cause tuberculosis of the spine, often known as Potts disease or Potts's spine, if it affects the spine. Tuberculosis can also harm the skin, brain, and heart.
Treatment is determined by whether a person has active or latent tuberculosis.A doctor will recommend preventive therapy for people with latent TB, which typically involves taking an antibiotic called isoniazid daily for 6–9 months. People with active tuberculosis usually require a 6 to 12 month dose of antibiotics. Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide are among the first-line treatments. While some people with active tuberculosis require a concise hospital stay, many can be treated at home. After a few weeks of treatment, most of the people to feel better and are no longer able to spread the infection. However, it is critical to complete the entire course of treatment exactly as prescribed by the doctor in order to prevent the disease from recurring and the bacteria from becoming resistant to the drugs. Drug-resistant tuberculosis is much more difficult to treat and can be extremely dangerous if passed on to others.