Received: 30-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-98836;
Editor assigned: 03-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. DPL-23-98836(PQ);
Reviewed: 17-Apr-2023, QC No. DPL-23-98836;
Revised: 24-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. DPL-23-98836(R);
, DOI: 10.37532/dpl.2023.15.03
, Citations: Zhang L. 2023. Understanding the Protective Role of IL-6 Receptor in Coronary Heart
Disease. Der Pharma Lett.15:03-04.
Copyright: © 2023 Zhang L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a complex disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Inflammation is one of the key processes involved in the development and progression of CHD. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation, and it has been suggested that IL-6 and its receptor may play a role in the development of CHD. This study provides an overview of the IL-6 receptor and its potential role in the prevention of CHD.
IL-6 is a cytokine produced by a variety of cells, including T-cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. It is involved in the regulation of the immune response, hematopoiesis, and acute phase responses. IL-6 exerts its biological effects by binding to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), which is a transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of many cells, including hepatocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells. The binding of IL-6 to IL-6R activates the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, which regulates gene expression and cellular processes.
There are two types of IL-6R, the Membrane-bound IL-6R (mIL-6R) and the Soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R). The mIL-6R is expressed on the surface of some cells, such as hepatocytes and leukocytes, and is responsible for the classical signaling pathway of IL-6. The sIL-6R is generated by proteolytic cleavage of the mIL-6R and is found in the circulation. The sIL-6R can bind to IL-6 and form a complex with the gp130 protein, which is a common signaling subunit for many cytokine receptors, leading to the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. This process is known as trans-signaling and allows IL-6 to activate cells that do not express mIL-6R.
Several studies have suggested that IL-6 and its receptor may play a role in the development and progression of CHD. IL-6 levels have been shown to be elevated in patients with CHD, and there is evidence that IL-6 may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, immune cells, and smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall, leading to the formation of plaques. IL-6 has been shown to promote the recruitment of leukocytes to the arterial wall and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), which contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
The IL-6 has been shown to have effects on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are risk factors for CHD. IL-6 has been shown to increase the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, leading to an increase in Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. IL-6 has also been shown to impair insulin signaling, leading to insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of CHD. Finally, IL-6 has been shown to impair endothelial function, which is a precursor to the development of atherosclerosis.
Given the potential role of IL-6 and its receptor in the development and progression of CHD, there has been interest in developing therapies that target this pathway. One such therapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies that target IL-6 or its receptor. These antibodies have been shown to effectively reduce inflammation and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, which are associated with chronic inflammation.
In addition, several clinical trials have evaluated the use of IL-6 inhibitors in patients with CHD or at high risk for CHD. One such trial, the CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study) trial, evaluated the use of canakinumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets IL-1β, a cytokine that is upstream of IL-6 in the inflammatory pathway. The trial found that canakinumab significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular events, including heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death, in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and elevated levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation.
Another clinical trial, the COLCOT (Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes) trial, evaluated the use of colchicine, an anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the production of IL-1β, in patients with recent myocardial infarction. The trial found that colchicine significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular events, including recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death.
Overall, these trials suggest that targeting the IL-6 pathway may be a promising therapeutic approach for reducing the risk of CHD in patients with chronic inflammation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of these therapies, particularly in patients without autoimmune diseases.
Citation: Zhang L. 2023. Understanding the Protective Role of IL-6 Receptor in Coronary Heart Disease. Der Pharma Lett.15:03-04.
Copyright: © 2023 Zhang L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.