Opinion - European Journal of Sports & Exercise Science ( 2022) Volume 10, Issue 3
Received: 11-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. EJSES-22-77003; Editor assigned: 15-Apr-2022, Pre QC No. EJSES-22-77003(PQ); Reviewed: 26-Apr-2022, QC No. EJSES-22-77003(Q); Revised: 07-May-2022, Manuscript No. EJSES-22-77003(R); Published: 17-May-2022 , DOI: 0
Both adults and young competitive athletes with hidden cardiac problems may experience acute mortality as a result of participating in sports. The risk-benefit ratio of physical activity varies between these two age groups, though. Competitive exercise is significantly linked to an increased risk of sudden mortality in adolescents and young adults. Sports don’t “per se” cause the increased mortality in this age group; rather, they serve as a catalyst for cardiac arrest in athletes with silent cardiovascular diseases, primarily cardiomyopathy, premature coronary artery disease, and congenital coronary anomalies, which predispose to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias during exercise.
Sudden cardiac death, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Pre participation athletic evaluation, Coronary artery anomalies
Both adults and young competitive athletes with hidden cardiac problems may experience acute mortality as a result of participating in sports. The risk-benefit ratio of physical activity varies between these two age groups, though. Competitive exercise is significantly linked to an increased risk of sudden mortality in adolescents and young adults. Sports don’t “per se” cause the increased mortality in this age group; rather, they serve as a catalyst for cardiac arrest in athletes with silent cardiovascular diseases, primarily cardiomyopathy, premature coronary artery disease, and congenital coronary anomalies, which predispose to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias during exercise. On the other hand, physical activity in adults can be seen as a “two-edged sword”: vigorous exercise raises the risk of acute coronary events in people who don’t exercise regularly, whereas regular exercise lowers the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death overall by halting the progression of coronary atherosclerotic lesions and coronary artery disease. Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The medical profession recommends regular exercise because it has the ability to delay the onset of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and reduce the frequency of coronary events. Adults and young competitive athletes have different risk- benefit ratios when it comes to physical activity. This could be explained by the two populations’ distinct cardiovascular substrates, which underlie sudden death connected to athletics. The reasons of sudden death are a reflection of the participants’ ages. Although atherosclerotic coronary artery disease causes the great majority of fatalities in adults (age > 35), a variety of cardiovascular substrates are present in younger athletes. Depending on the study’s methodology, varying amounts of prodromal symptoms are observed among people who pass away abruptly, although the prevalence is typically about 50%. The most typical signs and symptoms include chest discomfort and actual or almost actual syncope, both of which are prevalent in young people and may be brought on by a variety of cardiac and non-cardiac illnesses. In particular, if the patient has a high-risk cardiac disorder, a family history of sudden death, or exertion-related, unexplained syncope that is unnoticed or preceded by palpitation, prompt cardiac evaluation is recommended for kids or young adults with exertional chest pain that is not affected by movement, inspiration, or palpation and without an apparent no cardiac cause.
What might result in a young person’s abrupt cardiac death?
1.Electrical signaling issues in the heart are a common cause of sudden cardiac death. The lower heart chambers (ventricles),which normally pump blood when the heart beats quickly, begin to quiver ineffectively.Ventricularfibrillation is the name given to this unsteady heartbeat.
2.The risk of sudden death can be increased by any illness that strains the heart or harms heart tissue. Among the circumstances that might cause sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents are:
3.Heart muscle that is thicker (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). This genetic disease, which makes the heart muscle grow overly thick, is the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. Heartbeats may become rapid as a result of the thickness, which makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood.
4.Problems with heart rhythm. Fast, disorderly heartbeats can result from the heart rhythm disorder long QT syndrome. Particularly in children and young adults, it is associated with abrupt, inexplicable death. Congenital long QT syndrome, underlying medical conditions or pharmaceutical use are two possible causes of long QT syndrome (acquired long QT syndrome). In addition to Brugada syndrome and Wolfe-Parkinson-White syndrome, other heart rhythms problems that can result in sudden cardiac death includeare.
5.Sharp chest injury Commotio cordis is the medical term for a severe chest blow that results in rapid cardiac death. Athletes who take a heavy blow to the chest from another player or from a piece of sporting equipment may develop commotio cordis. The cardiac muscle is not damaged by this disorder. Instead, it modifies the electrical signaling of the heart. If the chest blow occurs at a particular point in thesignalingcycle,ventricularfibrillation may result.
6.Having a birth-related heart structural issue (congenital heart defect). The heart and blood vessels of some people are altered from birth, which can limit blood flow and cause sudden cardiac death.
The greatest technique to spot athletes who are susceptible to sudden death
The most effective method for proactively identifying athletes at risk for sudden death has been the subject of extensive debate among specialists. The pre participation history and physical examination (sports physical) is still regarded by many as the most useful technique. Even while sudden death can occasionally be the initial symptom of heart disease, many illnesses that put people at risk for sudden cardiac death are genetic and/or may manifest as clinical symptoms. We also know that looking at family history might occasionally help identify them. An important first step in identifying those at risk is to ensure that every athlete gets yearly screening exams conducted by appropriately trained practitioners using officially advised recommendations.