There are various risk factors to neonatal development during neonatal period at the first four weeks of a child’s life. Neonatal development in this period, it presents critical in brain-nerve system maturation, cardiovascular and pulmonary development, this time for a child face to risks at developing of different diseases: 1. Fetal Diseases, as Fetal Nutrition Disorders or Fetal Oxygen Distress; 2. Hereditary Diseases, as Kartagener Syndrome or Cystic Fibrosis; 3. Congenital Abnormal Diseases, as Digestive System Abnormalities or Cardiovascular Abnormalities; 4. Newborn Diseases, as, Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome, Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome. And Immunology Immaturity Neonatal development has studied, and genetic reasons are in basic role to develop diseases of Hereditary Diseases and Congenital Defect or Newborn Diseases. Environmental risk factors are also observed to neonatal development, the risks to neonatal are either from maternal or from the child self by mediated with the factors of infection, nutrition or function immaturity. The advance treatment in neonatal is applied in life support treatment with oxygen supply, monitor observation and warm keeping assistant machine; pharmacology therapy, surfactant replacement or nitric oxide inhalation therapy and ECMO in pulmonary cardiological support therapy to clinical abnormal presentation. Medical Collaboration has role in critical care for neonatal diseases, there have Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, ambulance transfer and basic research based on national trust groups.