The present study aimed to compare the level of aerobic fitness and body composition of trained and untrained male college students of West Bengal, India. Trained students (N = 250) in the age range of 19-25 years were separated from their untrained counterparts (N = 250) according to their level of physical activity. Aerobic fitness in terms of maximum oxygen uptake capacity ( O2max.) was estimated by Queen’s College Step Test. In order to evaluate the body composition variables (body mass index, % body fat, lean body mass, % skeletal muscle mass, % skeletal mass and body surface area) researcher applied a testing procedure that included measurements of height (cm), body weight (kg), three muscle girths (upper arm, thigh and calf) in cm, four bone diameters (humerus, bistyloid, femur and bimalleolus) in cm, and eight skinfolds thickness (triceps, sub-scapular, suprailiac, pectoral, axilla, abdominal, thigh and calf) in mm. Results found statistically significant (p<0.01) higher values of O2max. in trained college students compared to untrained students. The body composition variables have been compared between both groups and found trained college students possess better body composition in each variables than their counterpart. A negative correlation was found to O2max. with % body fat (p<0.01) and body surface area (p<0.05) of both trained and untrained groups. The BMI, lean body mass and % skeletal muscle mass have the significant (p<0.01) positive correlations with O2max. Finding suggest that beneficial effects of regular exercise on O2max. and body composition variables in college students.