Genetic variation is closely correlated with crop improvement. Garlic is mostly propagated through vegetative means; hence, there is a need to induce a significant amount of heterogeneity. Ploidy is induced in vitro by colchicine, which improves allelic variation among individuals. We examined the optimum concentrations of BAP and TDZ for shoot proliferation. The study suggests that BAP (3 mg/L) and TDZ (0.25 mg/L) exhibit considerable growth in shoot regeneration. Twenty-one-day-old calli were subcultured, and the 2nd-generation passage was subjected to a culture medium with BAP, TDZ, and different concentrations of colchicine. The results show that 0.05 mg/L colchicine promotes explant survival. Treatment improved the genetic potential of garlic varieties in vitro but resulted in a lower duplication rate at 0.75 mg/L due to higher toxicity. The LC50 colchicine concentration was 0.03 mg/L-0.05 mg/L. The study suggests that an increase in ploidy level is expected to generate higher molecular diversity in garlic.