Ethanol extract of Jatropha curcus seed was evaluated for antifertility activity in adult female rats. Antifertility activity was evaluated by observing estrus cycle, weight of ovaries and biochemical constituents. Ethanol extract arrested the normal estrus cycle at diestrus phase and reduced the weight of ovaries significantly. Cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries significantly enhanced while glycogen content decreased. Histological, degeneration of ovarian follicle and formation of atretic follicles indicated the fall of ovarian hormone level. Normal estrus cycle and biochemical milieu was restored after withdrawal of treatment with extract on 30 days. Antifertility activities of crude extract were found to be reversible.