This study aimed to investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) on hemodialysis patients. r-HuEPO was administered to 38 patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment. After hemodialysis, the effects of erythropoietin on the hematologic and biochemical parameters of the patients were analyzed. r-HuEPO treatment was carried out for 16 weeks, three times a week, after hemodialysis. Each patient received a dose of 150 u/kg r-HuEPO subcutaneously after hemodialysis. During the period of the research, each patient received a total of 5000 units of r-HuEPO. Hematologic and biochemical analysis was performed before the r-HuEPO treatment and after the fourth, eighth, twelfth, and sixteenth week. The results of the research indicated that erythrocyte levels in patients increased from 3.1 to 31.6 percent, hematocrit levels increased from 9.1 to 31.5 percent, and hemoglobin levels increased from 7.1 to 32.3 percent, in the fourth to sixteenth week, respectively. In addition to the r-HuEPO treatment, iron deficiency was also treated. This treatment contributed to an observed increase in iron levels of 1.6 and 10.9 percent in the fourth and twelfth weeks, respectively. 16 weeks of r- HuEPO treatment played an important role in the recovery of end-stage chronic hemodialysis patients suffering from anemia problems; in addition, their health-related quality of life improved.