The cigarette smoking is a life style habit which always acquired during adolescence. Because the huge impact of the cigarette smoking on human health, the present study was investigate the prevalence and effective factors on cigarette smoking among male high school students in Iran. A cross – sectional study was conducted among 147 male high school students in Ilam, west of Iran in 2015. The study samples were selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data was collected by both questionnaire and Nicotine test kit. The urine nicotine was detected according to column chromatography and identified by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography, which detected the urine nicotine levels based on consumption during the past 24 - 72 hours. SPSS software 20 was used to analyze the data of this project. P value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 147 students were studied. All participants were second grade of high school in 3 fields of study including; natural sciences, human sciences and mathematics. Overall, 48 students put in the cigarette smoker. The start age of cigarette smoking was highest in > 15 years. There are statistically significant relationships between students’ cigarette smoking with parents' education level and parents' occupation. There is a significant relationship between student cigarette smoking and other family members’ cigarette smoking. The risk of students’ cigarette smoking increased in whose have father cigarette smoker. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is high in the study population, therefore the development of appropriate strategies to reduce the cigarettes smoking is recommended.