Herbals are endowed with phytochemicals that have applications in different pharmaceutical formulations. There is development in extracting, identifying and quantifying these compounds that can lead to drug discovery. Various technological advancements are available for isolation and identification of these compounds. Rotula aquatica is a herbal plant used for the treatment of urolithiasis. The aqueous extract of plant root was used in the present study to identify few compounds that are present in the plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence or absence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, anthraquinones, anthocyanin, quinones, volatile oils, proteins and carbohydrates. HPTLC of aqueous extract of Rotula aquatica was carried out to assess the further assess the presence of phenol, tannin and saponins. The study revealed the presence of seven different types of phenols with seven different Rf values, twelve different types of tannins with twelve different Rf values and eleven different types of saponins with eleven different Rf values. These compounds identification can be used as a tool for identification of the plant and utilisation in the medicine formulation.