Identifying and Investigating the Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Iran | Abstract
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Identifying and Investigating the Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Iran

Author(s): Naser Gholami, Ahmad Rezaeian, Amir Farjami-Moghadam, Amir Hesam Torghabe, Hamed Abdi, Vahid Moayedi, Reza Alaee

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important health problem in the world. Due to the importance of this disease in the region and favorable living conditions for the vectors, this study was conducted to determine the outbreak of disease in villages of Rustam, Mamasani and Fasa in Fars province. The population society consisted of the villages of the Fars province, where some cases of leishmaniasis were observed in previous years and villages that are prone to this disease as well as a number of villages in Fars province. In total, 12 villages with the total population of 15225 and 5000 household were considered. Questionnaires were completed by referring to the rural houses and basic physical examination of family members. Suspicious cases after sampling and diagnostic tests were identified and paperwork was conducted for the patients with cutaneous lesion. Results show that there was a remarkable outbreak of the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rustam city in 2010 which among 10 patients, four men (40%) and six women (60%), with cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified with a mean age of 47.7. Wet cutaneous leishmaniasis was observed for all 10 patients (100%), therefore, the outbreak of dry cutaneous leishmaniasis was 0%. Thanks to control measures taken by the health center especially center for disease control and prevention the outbreak of the disease was reduced to two patients in 2011 with a mean age of 37, including two women with dry (urban) cutaneous leishmaniasis and wet (rural) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Hands (especially the forearm) are most susceptible to the disease. 80% of patients were observed with a lesion, 10% with two lesions and 10% with three lesions. Importantly, no positive case was found in the cities of Mamasani and Fasa. Results show that outbreak of leishmaniasis in the Rustam city is more than other cities, but it has reduced in this city compared with last year and now its outbreak is relatively low. Immigration to the cities where the disease was prevalent the disease in the city, was the main cause of the observed cases; unfavorable climatic and environmental conditions for mosquitoes and rodents lead to relatively low outbreak of the disease in this city. However, due to high potential for spread of the disease in this city, control measures taken by health center are required.