Background: Glutamate is a major endogenous excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases by excessive activation.
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the neuroprotective effect methanolic extract of Biophytum reinwardtii (BR) against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and to assess the underlying mechanism.
Method: BR extract was subjected to a neuroprotective effect assay in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of BR extract was evaluated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, intracellular Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme activity in HT22 cells.
Results: BR extract significantly decreased glutamate-induced death of HT22 cells (88.23 ± 1.65% relative neuroprotection). BR extract reduced the intracellular ROS and Ca2+ levels and increased the glutathione level and glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxide activities. Moreover, BR extract attenuated the mitochondrial membrane potential in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results suggested that BR extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress HT22 cells, which was mediated by its antioxidant activity.