Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. The therapeutic value of Camilla sinensis (or Thea sinensis) known as ‘Tea’ has been recognized in different systems of traditional medication for the treatment of different diseases and ailments of humans. It contains several phytoconstituents belonging to category of polyphenols, flavonoids, alaloids and volatile oils. It has been reported to be stimulant, cure flatulence (gas), regulating body temperature and blood sugar, indigestion, improving urinary problems and improving mental processes. Several studies using modern techniques have authenticated its use as anti diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti pyretic, anti cancer, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, anti cariogenic, anticataractogenic, anti microbial and hypolipidemic. There are number of reports on clinical uses of Camilla sinensis in various disorders particularly in cancer and diabetes that have shown promising results. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of this plant.