Present and new vistas in biotechnology | Abstract
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Journal of Computational Methods in Molecular Design


Present and new vistas in biotechnology

Author(s): Ales Prokop

Following the definition of biotechnology, I shall delineate four areas of biotechnology that are undergoing explosive growth: gene editing and delivery; nanoparticulate delivery of drugs-prepared from natural polymers, low-cost metallic nanoparticles, and cellular-derived nanoparticles-exosomes; modeling in biotechnology and systems biology and artificial intelligence; and immunotherapy, particularly of cancer. First, I will mention some classical gene delivery methods, then cover in some detail relatively new development, the CRISPR-Cas9 method, dealing with gene editing and delivery. Even though this method matured only in 2002, exponential growth is noted. Some warning is mentioned because of flagrant se of this method in connection with the human embryo. The second part will deal with nanoparticles, covering three subjects. First, some polymeric nanoparticles will be introduced, followed by metallic-based nanoparticles prepared from bacteria, yeasts, algae, and plants with help of reducing agents. Some examples of what these nanoparticles can do will be listed, particularly of oxidation of toxic agents. Then a special nanoparticle introduced from all kinds of cells will be discussed-exosomes. This is is largely unexplored and will perhaps play a significant role in biotechnology. The third section will deal with modeling in biotechnology, with an emphasis on systems biology and closed with an exposure to the artificial intelligence which is going to play in biotechnology (is already playing in the automobile industry) significant growth in biotechnology once more molecular knowledge is accumulated. At last, medical biotechnology/immunology will be (it is already) more significant in fighting cancer. Immunology is undergoing revolution only now as the accumulated knowledge is now coming to fruition. We only mention a small portion of this burgeoning field, checkpoint inhibitors which are becoming more effective compared to the rest of drugs, fighting cancer