With a present population of 1.3 billions, India ranks second presently as the most populous country. It has found its place among the fastest growing major economies. Globally approximately 2.5 million kids are born annually each year. Many of these neonates are born with defects which are present since birth- Congenital birth defects. Among these birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common ac- counting for 28-30%. The birth prevalence of CHD is 8-10/1000 live births. Approximately 2.4 lakh children are born with CHD each year in our country. Although the birth prevalence is more or less constant globally, the epidemiology of CHD is quite different in our country com- pared to the western world.
In 85% cases, the aetiology of CHD is unknown. The role of heredity is found in only 10-15% cases. Maternal viral exanthems like rubella have been found to have good association with occurrence of CHD in neonates. Maternal diabetes, smoking, alcohol intake further adds on to the list. Maternal exposure to teratogenic drugs and agents
especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, increased maternal BMI, increasing age of the parents, consanguineous marriages, in vitro fertilisa- tion pregnancy are some other cases which have been attributed to the list. Family history of CHD adds to the risk of a child of having CHD.