Structural Biology 2018: Stormorken syndrome disease STIM1 protein studied by high resolution NMR - Petr Rathner - Johannes Kepler University Linz | Abstract
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Journal of Computational Methods in Molecular Design


Structural Biology 2018: Stormorken syndrome disease STIM1 protein studied by high resolution NMR - Petr Rathner - Johannes Kepler University Linz

Author(s): Petr Rathner

STIM1 serves as calcium sensor protein in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell which extends into the cytosol and oligomerises upon calcium store depletion. The cytosolic phase of STIM1 consists of one lengthy and two quick coiled coil domains directly concerned in homo-oligomerization leading to spatial elongation of the STIM1 protein and activation of the Orai calcium channel. The Stormorken syndrome related with a single point mutation (R304W) inside this area of STIM1 results in everlasting activation of Orai channel. Using high decision answer country NMR we have found a helix elongation within the quick coiled coil domain of the mutant close to the mutation position with appreciate to the wild type STIM1. These findings corroborate the extended propensity of this area to structure homomers destabilizing the resting country of STIM1, which leads to the increased channel activation. STIM1 and Orai1 are key factors of the Ca2+-release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) current. Orai1, which represents the subunit forming the CRAC channel complex, is activated with the aid of the ER resident Ca2+ sensor STIM1. The genetically inherited Stormorken syndrome ailment has been associated with the STIM1 single point R304W mutant. The resulting constitutive activation of Orai1 usually includes the CRAC-activating domain CAD/SOAR of STIM1, the publicity of which is regulated by the molecular interplay between three cytosolic STIM1 coiled-coil (CC) domains. Here we current a dual mechanism by means of which STIM1 R304W attains the pathophysiological, constitutive activity eliciting the Stormorken syndrome. The R304W mutation induces a helical elongation within the CC1 domain, which collectively with an improved CC1 homomerization, destabilize the resting nation of STIM1. This culminates, even in the absence of save depletion, in structural extension and CAD/SOAR exposure of STIM1 R304W main to constitutive CRAC channel activation and Stormorken disease. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is vital for many calcium-mediated signaling pathways on the cellular and physiological level. Extracellular ligands bind to plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, which transduce the sign to the cellphone interior, triggering the release of calcium (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a method known as keep depletion. The ER-located stromal interplay molecule1 (STIM1) senses the decrease in [Ca2+]ER main to STIM1 oligomerization and translocation to ER–PM junctions the place it couples to and prompts the Ca2+-selective channel Orai1. The importance of SOCE is highlighted by diverse mutations in STIM1 and Orai1 genes, which end result in Ca2+-release activated Ca2+(CRAC) channelopathies that are characterised through autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, skeletal myopathy, and ectodermal dysplasia. Recently, the human gain-of-function (GoF) mutant STIM1 R304W has been located in sufferers struggling of the Stormorken syndrome, which includes the symptoms thrombocytopenia, muscle fatigue, asplenia, miosis, migraine, dyslexia, and ichthyosis. The cytosolic part of STIM1 interacts through direct coupling with both Orai1 C terminus and N terminus; however, the Orai1 C terminus has verified to be the dominant STIM1 coupling partner. ER Ca2+ store depletion is the preliminary trigger for STIM1/Orai1 interaction involving mechanistic steps, which include conformational changes of STIM1 resulting in oligomerization and translocation of STIM1 to the cell periphery. The ER luminal-located STIM1 EF hand/SAM area senses the limit of [Ca2+]ER and responds with oligomerization of the luminal STIM1 parts. Consequently, the crossing transmembrane (TM) domains of STIM1 dimers congregate and exchange their angle resulting in conformational rearrangements of STIM1 cytosolic portions which eventually lead to oligomerization and extension of the respective domains. The STIM Orai-activating region (SOAR aa344–442) or CRAC-activating domain (CAD aa342–448) characterize ~100 amino acids inside the STIM1 C-terminal strand responsible for coupling to and activating Orai1. SOAR has been crystallized, revealing CC2 and CC3, forming an intramolecular antiparallel coiled coil, respectively. Within full-length STIM1, the SOAR/CAD domain is kept quiescent in a tightly packed structure when ER shops are full. Upon keep depletion, STIM1 extends its cytosolic strand, exposing SOAR/CAD for interaction with Orai. CC1, which is upstream of SOAR/CAD, has an inhibitory role, as CC1α1 as properly as CC1α3 show off an intramolecular interaction with CC3 resulting in a tight, quiescent STIM1 conformation. CAD/SOAR publicity is precipitated upon ER keep depletion, releasing the CC1–CC3 clamp, therefore switching the cytosolic element of STIM1 from a tight into an extended conformation. CC2, which is part of CAD/SOAR, as a result couples to the Orai1 C terminus, finally forming the STIM1-Orai1 affiliation pocket as revealed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)