Introduction and aims: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases that declared by WHO as urgency due to lack of its sufficient control. The aim of study was to determine the efficacy of the HBM on the promotion of self-care behaviors in patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: The framework of this quasi-experimental study was the HBM. 160 patients were divided equally into the test and control groups. Data were collected by questionnaires. Training materials were enclosed in two pamphlets and a manually. The training plan was performed in the test group in 3 sessions, they also advised for using of different food items. After one month, both groups took the post-test. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 16. Findings: Mean age of the subjects was 55.2 years and treatment duration was 32 days. 53.8% were females, illiterate (76.9%), residents of rural areas (76.9%) and 21.2% of them had a family history of TB. 83.7% of them had been previously trained about TB. Paired T-test indicated a significant difference on the promotion of the model construct, knowledge and self-care behaviors in the test group after intervention.