The anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils are very little studied. Oxidative stress occurs when the imbalance between the production of free radicals and anti-inflammatory enzymes is related to the onset of serious diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil of Ginella tasiva was evaluated by edematous response of rats. The results show an anti-inflammatory power with an IC50 of 0.056 mg/ml. This activity is mainly due to the combined action of various endogenous anti-inflammatory substances contained in the essential oil. The study of the acute toxicity of the essential oil of Ginella tasiva showed no mortality in groups of used animals. Most importantly, we found that the toxicity of this essential oil is due to the presence of thymoquinone.