Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder, which is one of the top five global diseases leading to death. Diabetes mellitus is of four types: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus and other specific types which are mainly caused due to genetic defects or by the usage of drugs like antipsychotics. The pathophysiology involves insulin deficiency, interaction between genetic and environmental factors, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity coupled with inadequate insulin response. This disease can be treated by synthetic drugs like sulfonylureas, non-sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidage inhibitors, biguanides, insulin, inhaled insulin, and natural drugs. Different animal models are used in preclinical studies of diabetes mellitus for the discovery and development of new drugs. It can be induced in experimental animals by different methods like chemical, surgical, and viral methods.