Today we can talk about a crisis of the modern astrophysics. The magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, which in accordance with Einstein’s equations of general relativity (GTR) is determined by the energy density εν of the physical vacuum, exceeds the experimentally determined value by 120 orders of magnitude if one uses the accepted ideas about the big bang dynamics for calculation. In the talk will be shown that the physical essence of emerging problems should first be understood at the level of the transcendental phenomenology. The ground for creating the corresponding phenomenological construction is an introduction into the physical science of a basic energy-containing medium, a sort of an ether, which is identified with the electromagnetic component of the physical vacuum – EM vacuum and which is considered as the basic reference system, tied to the expanding Universe. It is believed that the universe is an open system and the source of energy that feeds the universe is the external false vacuum, which is more energy-intensive than the EM vacuum of our Universe. It is assumed that the energetic power that constantly feeds our universe across the boundary the false vacuum – EM vacuum is equal to the Planck power. In this case, the energy flow entering the universe determines, after the Hubble equation is taken into account, the equation for the dynamics of the universe expansion (an analog of the first Friedmann equation), and the rate of the Universe volume increase determines the operating pressure. It is shown that the energy density ενcalc of the EM vacuum calculated on the basis of such representations is in full correspondence with the magnitude Λ (the solution of the 120 orders problem). In accordance with the general Casimir idea, all elementary particles and atomic nuclei in the Universe are open to the EM vacuum, and the Casimir polarization of the EM vacuum in the vicinity of each elementary particle or atomic nucleus is formed. It is shown that it is within the framework of such representations the essence of the gravity phenomenon and the origin of the unique smallness of the gravitational interaction in comparison with the nuclear (strong and weak) and electromagnetic interaction can be understood. It can be assumed that it is the wave propagation of the EM vacuum perturbation was recorded in the recent LIGO observation, and this disturbance could arise in the collision of two neutron stars or by some other large-scale events. It is shown that the adoption of the hypothesis that the electromagnetic component of physical vacuum, the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED vacuum), undergoes polarization in the vicinity of elementary particles allows us to comprehend, on the phenomenological level, the physical essence of the basic hypotheses of the special theory of relativity, including the nature of the limitation of the velocity of material objects to the velocity of light in vacuum. The QED vacuum here plays the part of the base medium that governs the development of the fundamental strong and gravitational interactions.