Impact of heavy metals (Chromium and Nickel) on the health of residents of Jagadhri city due to intake of contaminated underground water | Abstract
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Impact of heavy metals (Chromium and Nickel) on the health of residents of Jagadhri city due to intake of contaminated underground water

Author(s): Vijay Sharma, Mamta Verma Sachdeva, Niti Sakhuja, Deepak Arora

Disposal of Industrial waste is the major problem and responsible for soil & water pollution. Accumulation of water of different places creates adverse impact on all the living organism and environment. Industrial sludge is more dangerous than Industrial solid waste. These pollutants affect and alter the chemical and biological properties of soil and water. As a result hazardous chemicals and metal ions can enter into the human food chain from the soil or water, disturb the bio-chemical processes and finally lead to serious effects on living organisms. These industrial discharges, various pollutants from pulp and paper mills, sugar mills, distilleries, metal processing industries, starch mills, tanneries, textiles, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals pollute the water, air and soil. Yamuna Nagar and Jagadhri are the two twin cities in Haryana. Yamuna Nagar is the second biggest industrial city in Haryana. All the industries discharge their solid as well as liquid waste on land and in water bodies without recommended treatment and pollute the soil, water and air. Jagadhri is famous for metal and industries steel processing and there are more than 800 units of metal industries. All these industries discharge there solid and liquid waste on the land and in water. The hand pump water of Jagadhri and Yamuna Nagar colonies where the sludge of paper mill, sugar mill and metal industries are used for land filling is seriously polluted due to seepage effect of various contaminants from these wastes. The physico-chemical parameters of the underground water samples, from the colonies where solid industrial waste used for land filling, had been analyzed and compared with standard permissible values supplied by WHO and ICMR for drinking water. The values of all the parameters are beyond the permissible limits. This chronically polluted water containing chemicals and metal ions causes problems to health and leads to severe diseases in the cities. The diseases due to metal ions (Cr& Ni) contamination are liver necrosis, nephritis and irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Hexavalent chromium can produce cutaneous and nasal mucousmembrane ulcers, dermatitis and cancer. Nickel induces embryo toxic and nephrotoxic effects, allergic reactions and contact dermatitis. Nickel sensitization may also cause conjunctivitis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, and asthma. Nickel is a potential human carcinogen resulting into lungs and nasopharyngeal cancers. Therefore assessing the concentration level of these metals and their health impact on the residents of these cities is very necessary.