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Lesser known spices of Akwa Ibom State; their nutritional,antinutritional, mineral and phytochemical analyses | Abstract
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12013805565

Archives of Applied Science Research

Abstract

Lesser known spices of Akwa Ibom State; their nutritional,antinutritional, mineral and phytochemical analyses

Author(s): Bassey, M.E., I.I. Johnny and B.I. Okoro

A random investigation of indigenous spices used by the people of Akwa Ibom State revealed a
total of eight spices of which four (Monodora myristica (Gaertner) Dunal Chrysobalanus
atacorensis A. Chev., and Xanthosoma maffafa ( L.) Schum. are being documented for the first
time. The seed, fruit, and spathes respectively are the plant parts used as spices. These were
analyzed and the proximate composition showed that protein was 16.14%, 15.74%, and 4.82%
respectively for M. myristica, C. atacorensis, and X. maffafa. Crude fat was 37.11%, 12.22%,
and 12.01% respectively. Ash content was 5.33%, 2.00% and 14.00%. Fibre was 19.00%,
7.33%, and 29.00%. Carbohydrate was 22.75%, 62.69%, and 40.17%. The moisture content was
85.50%, 91.00%, and 92.38%. Mineral composition for the 3 spices were as follows: Potassium-
1960.00 mg/kg , 2490.00 mg/kg, and 3965 mg/kg. Sodium – 113.33 mg/kg, 96.66 mg/kg, and
2231 mg/kg. Magnesium-190.33 mg/kg, 165.33mg/kg and 451.6 mg/kg. Calcium –642.66 mg/kg,
324.00 mg/kg, and 931.00 mg/kg. Phosphorous – 3000.00 mg/kg, 3250.00 mg/kg and 3460.00
mg/kg. Iron – 508.74mg/kg, 504.57mg/kg, and 291.90mg/kg. The ant-nutrient composition in
mg/100g for phytic acid was 39.45, 31.44, and 3.31 in the three spices. Oxalic acid was 88.00,
97.09, and 30.80, while the composition of tannic acid was 7.34mg/100g in M. myristica, absent
in C. atacorensis and 4.97mg/100g jn X. maffafa. The phytochemical screening revealed that
saponins were strongly present in M. myristica but absent in the other three spices. Tannins were
strongly present in M. myristica, present in X. maffafa but absent in C. atacorensis.
Anthraquinones were absent from all three spices. Flavonoids were strongly present in C.
atacorensis and present in the other two spices. Cardiac glycosides were strongly present in M.
myristica and C. atacorensis, but occurred in trace amounts in X. maffafa. Alkaloids were
present in M. myristica , strongly present in C. atacorensis and absent in X. maffafa. These
spices are highly recommended for consumption and conservation.