Anacardium occidentale is well established in folklore medicine and is reputed to be effective against renal and
skin infections and is also used to treat tooth decay and acne. This study was carried out to explore the
pharmacognostic and anti-diabetic activity of the ethanol extract of Anacardium occidentale root in both normal and
Streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. The diverse features of the powdered root were observed macroscopically
using the standard description of terms. The powder is light brown in colour, rough to touch with characteristic
odour and taste. Some of the characteristic features of the plant observed microscopically were multicellular
multiseriate medullary rays crossing parenchymatous cells, prism of calcium oxalate crystals spread across the cell
and fibre groups forming sheaths with prisms on them. The crude drug was found to have a moisture content of 15%
w/w while the total ash, water soluble ash and acid insoluble ash values were 2.67% w/w, 34% w/w and 10% w/w
respectively. Phytochemical evaluation of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, anthraquinones,
flavonoid, and terpenes/steroids. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic mice were administered
intraperitoneally with ethanol extract of the root at 500 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg respectively, for six hours.
There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the level of blood glucose of the mice after administration .The results
from this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root possesses some hypoglycemic properties and could
therefore have potential for diabetes management.