Phytochemical and Antidiarrhoeal Evaluation of Two Medicinal Plants Growing in Maiduguri Metropolis Nigeria | Abstract
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Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources


Phytochemical and Antidiarrhoeal Evaluation of Two Medicinal Plants Growing in Maiduguri Metropolis Nigeria

Author(s): Usman H, Kura WA, Modu H, Mohammed B, Umar HA

The plant wild custard apple otherwise known as Annona senegalensis belongs to the family Annonaceae. The
flowers, leaves and fruits are edible and culinary; the leaves are also view to create a general health tonic and in the
treatment of pneumonia; the bark is used in the synthesis of dyes and insecticide. Annona senegalensis is
traditionally used as pain reliever as well as effects such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diarrhoeal, antiinflammatory,
anticonvulsant, antimalarial, anti-tripanasomal and anti-nociceptive. The bark and root are used for
treating wide array of ailments including guinea worms, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, lung infections, toothaches.
Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae); it has been reported to have wide applications which include the use of leaf
decoction as a remedy for fever, whooping cough and for wound. Roots and bark of Diospyros mespiliformis are used
to stop purging and to enhance fertility, while the leaf decoction is used as remedy for fever, otitis and wound
dressing. Bark and roots for infections such as malaria, pneumonia, syphilis, leprosy, pain, dermatomycoses and to
facilitate child birth and also as a psycho-pharmacological drug. Annona senegalensis was collected from Baram
karauwa village, Jere; while Diospyros mespiliformis was collected from Jimtilo Village, Konduga, Borno State in
February, 2016. The air-dried extracts were ground into powdered form using mortar and pestle, extracted
separately with ethanol (70%) by reflux technique for 6 h each. Phytochemical evaluation using standard methods
revealed the presence secondary plant metabolite in both root and stem bark extracts of the two plants: saponins,
tannins, cardiac glycosides were present in both; while alkaloids was only found in root bark of Annona
senegalensis. Anthraquinones was present in most parts except in root bark of Annona senegalensis. Phlobatannins
and flavonoids (Shinoda’s rest) were absent in both extractives. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of both stem and root bark
extract was carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoea method in Wistar strain albino rats shows that Annona
senegalensis exhibited 100% protection while a dose-dependent approach was found as 92.81, 96.46 and 100%,
respectively at 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg bd. wt. on the stem bark extract of Diospyros mespiliformis. The root barks
extract presented a dosages-dependent fashion for Annona senegalensis but a non-dosages dependent pattern was
observed on Diospyros mespiliformis. Therefore, these findings have supported the use of these plants against
diarrhoea; but comparatively the stem bark of Annona senegalensis appeared to be the good candidate of choice.