The Impact of Climatic Change on Animal Disease Ecology, Distribution and Emergence: A Review | Abstract
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The Impact of Climatic Change on Animal Disease Ecology, Distribution and Emergence: A Review

Author(s): Negesse Mekonnen and Laiju Sam

The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Every environmental alteration,
irrespective of its causes, namely natural or through human intervention, modifies the ecological equilibrium and
setting within which diseases, hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Climate change
would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the vector's geographic range and increasing reproductive and
biting rates and by shortening the pathogen incubation period. Unpredicted natural disasters following changes of
climatic contents have also significant effect in transmission of diseases. Vector borne diseases that were previously
restricted to tropical areas are now spreading to previously cooler areas. Climate related increments in sea surface
temperature and sea levels could lead to higher incidence of water-borne infections. Currently, climate changes at
global level is becoming the key determinant for the emergence of new and re-emergence of previously available
animal diseases throughout the globe such as Rift Valley Fever, Ebola, Zika, Bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Crimean-
Congo haemorrhagic fever and others. Therefore, appropriate livestock husbandry and management practices,
adequate disease outbreak response plans, enhancement of disease surveillance and monitoring systems, and
development of effectively coordinated locally appropriate strategies should be implemented to mitigate and prevent
climate sensitive animal diseases.