Topological study of the H3 ++ molecular system: H3 ++ as a cornerstone for building molecules during the Big Bang | Abstract
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Topological study of the H3 ++ molecular system: H3 ++ as a cornerstone for building molecules during the Big Bang

Author(s): Michael Baer

The present study is devoted to the possibility that tri-atomic molecules were formed during or shortly after the Big Bang. For this purpose we consider the ordinary H3 + and H3 molecular systems and the primitive tri-atomic molecular system, H3 ++, which, as is shown, behaves differently. The study is carried out by comparing the topological features of these systems as they are reflected through their non-adiabatic coupling terms. Although H3 ++ is not known to exist as a molecule, we found that it behaves as such at intermediate internal distances. However, this illusion breaks down as its asymptotic region is reached. Our study indicates that whereas H3 + and H3 dissociate smoothly, the H3 ++ does not seem to do so. Nevertheless, the fact that H3 ++ is capable of living as a molecule on borrowed time enables it to catch an electron and form a molecule via the reaction H3 ++ + e Y H3 + that may dissociate properly: Thus, the two unique features acquired by H3 ++, namely, that it is the most primitive system formed by three protons and one electron and topologically, still remain for an instant a molecule, may make it the sole candidate for becoming the cornerstone for creating the molecules. Corollary – NACTs as Gluons: In order to discuss the buildup of protons Gell-mann and Zweig suggested that Hadrons (e.g. protons) are made out of smaller particles called Quarks. Quarks (usually three of them) are assumed to be hold together by particles - Gluons - that convey the force among them. In the present case, we face a similar problem, viz., building-up a molecular system out of protons and electrons. Indeed the Born-Oppenheimer-Huang (BOH) approach supplies us with the means to build the required magnitudes- the NACTs - as discussed in the above Molec. Phys. Article. Thus, the NACTs stand for the gluon that enforces the nuclei to form the molecule.