Recent evidences suggest that Hydrocotyl bonariensis posses active phytochemicals that could serve as base for phytomediceine and develop as anticataract agent. For effective exploration of this medicinal value therefore, short and long term administration effect of the extract was carried out in rat. LD50, an index of acute toxicity was determined in rat after oral administration of a single dose of the extract while hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity effect was carried out after chronic exposure of rat to the aqueous extract. For the chronic toxicity study, thirty Sprague Dawley rats divided into 6 groups were orally administered with 50, 100, 200, 250 and 500mgKg-1 dose of the extract continuously for 90 days. The LD50 was determined to be greater than 5000mgKg-1. No significant variation was observed in the serum alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. A significant increase was however observed in the serum alkaline phosphatase activities at doses ≥ 250mgKg-1. No significant alteration was alp observed in the serum total protein, albumin, creatinine and urea level. Similarly, the serum K+, Na+ and Hco3 were not also observed to vary significantly between the treated and the control groups. Data from this study suggest that short and long term administration of the extract may not potentiate liver and kidney toxicity.